Cigarette smoking among women is a more recent phenomenon than it is for men. Whereas tobacco consumption was already very high in British men at the start of World War II, British women only took to smoking in large numbers from this time onwards.
Smoking in British men began to decline in the early 1960s as influential reports, such as those from the Royal College of Physicians, linking smoking and cancer, were widely publicized Buy Dime Carts Online . These reports were thought to be a critical factor in reducing the incidence of smoking in men; particularly those who were better educated and had higher incomes.
Smoking rates in women continued to rise as women became more active in social roles and fields of work that had been dominated by men. Smoking in women peaked in the early 1970s, and now, as in men, is firmly on a declining trend.
Early in the twentieth century cigarette advertising was aimed only at men. But as the 1920s brought women new freedoms, American tobacco companies quickly recognized the potential of the female market. Chesterfield advertisements in 1926 had young women pleading to young men smokers “Blow some my way”. By using the slogan “Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet” American Tobacco was able to sell cigarettes to women as an alleged means of losing weight. In a series of massive advertising campaigns, the company appealed directly to women, using testimonials from well-known women such as Amelia Earhart, the famous flyer, and film star Jean Harlow.
In the 1970s cigarette manufacturers marketed brands that identified smoking with female liberation. Philip Morris launched Virginia Slims with the slogan “You’ve come a long way, baby”, and by 1976 it had become the women’s cigarette. In Britain the slogan was changed to “We’ve come long, long way” in response to objections to the sexist “Baby” slogan, but otherwise the theme of the woman who discovers her emancipation through her cigarettes remained the same. The early 1980s saw tennis player Martina Navratilova promoting British American Tobacco’s production worldwide television as her dress at Wimbledon sported the Kim logo.
Drugs of abuse generally have a variety of behavioral effects. It is important to learn of these effects on cigarette smoking for both theoretical and practical reasons. Theoretically, discovering how certain drugs affect cigarette smoking behavior can help us to understand the nature of the behaviour itself. From a practical standpoint it is important to learn if drugs can be used to help treat smoking, or if taking drugs will hinder treatment efforts.
One of the first drugs to be carefully studied for its effects on smoking was alcohol. It is commonly claimed by smokers that they smoke more when they drink. The laboratory studies proved this claim objectively and went a few steps further.
First, the studies showed that it was not just a social phenomenon. It even occurred when people drank in isolation. Second, they did not simply light up more often. The measures of puffs taken and CO levels showed that people actually inhaled more. Third, it was not simply due tithe person’s expectation: it happened when the flavor of the beverage was masked; the stronger the dose of alcohol the more they smoked. It was dependent, however, on past experience of drinking and smoking, because the effect was Very weak in light social drinkers, and alcohol may actually decrease smoking in people who hardly drink at all. Sedatives (pentobarbital) and upload narcotics (methadone and morphine) also increased cigarette smoking in abusers of these drugs.
One drug of particular interest was d-amphetamine. Amphetamines have been prescribed to help people stop smoking on the theory that cigarettes are stimulants and that substituting one for another should reduce smoking. However, the theory is oversimplified (smoking can both stimulate and relax), and the treatment has not worked. When given amphetamine people actually smoked more. This study measured several factors and showed that people smoked more cigarettes, took more puffs, achieved higher levels of smoke intake (CO), smoked the cigarettes down further, and felt better while smoking.
The findings regarding d-amphetamine suggest an inter-sting theory. Namely, drugs that produce positive feelings (euphoria) may increase cigarette smoking. Certain drugs such as amphetamine appear to be somewhat more universal euphoriants and may affect most smokers in the someway. Other drugs such as alcohol may only be euphoriants in certain individuals and may increase smoking only in these people. Caffeine has relatively little effect on smoking. This is probably because at the same time that caffeine provides some stimulation and euphoria, it can also make people more nervous. These findings on the effects of psychoactive drugs have important treatment implications. Ones that many of the drugs that an individual commonly uses while smoking cigarettes should be avoided while he or she’s trying to give up smoking cigarettes.
The findings of the above studies led to a hypothesis that drugs that blocked the effects of nicotine in the body might alter cigarette smoking regardless of their effect on mood. Therefore, it was predicted that treatment with nice-tine not in tobacco form would reduce cigarette smoking. This is because, even though nicotine has some euphoriant effects, it would be like giving a person much stronger cigarettes and he or she should compensate by smoking less. In several studies volunteers were given nicotine either inane intravenous form or in the form of a chewing gum. The results were consistent with the hypothesis; that is, people smoked less.
A drug that diminishes the effects of nicotine should increase cigarette smoking as the smoker attempts to compensate. A study was done in which an antihypertensive medicine, mecamylamine, was given in capsule form. According to the theory, if the dose of nicotine is suddenly reduced because it has been blocked, the person should smoke more. The results were consistent with the hypothesis; that is, people smoked more. Theoretically, if such a blocker were given continuously, the person would ultimately stop smoking since they would not get any pleasure out of smoking. Preliminary testing proved this to be true. These results suggest that such medicine might ultimately help people to stop smoking if repeated on a daily basis.